Design and development of dialysate temperature control module prototype for hemodialysis

Abdul Jabbar, Mohamed Haroon (2019) Design and development of dialysate temperature control module prototype for hemodialysis. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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In the last few decades, complications caused during hemodialysis (HD) treatment remain a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients. During standard HD, there is a significant tendency for the body temperature to rise slightly, which is sufficient to cause complications. Recent studies show that the controlling of body temperature by altering the dialysate temperature, can reduce the complication episodes. Although the importance of active regulation of dialysate temperature control and its benefits have mentioned in literature, an enhanced design of controller and its comparison with dated commercial controller -Blood Temperature Monitor (BTM) have not been reported yet.

Hence, it is the intention of this work to introduce the development of an effective dialysate temperature control module (DTCM) prototype and its comprehensive analysis in providing stable body temperature during the HD treatment. This study is incorporated with various prototype development stages such as prototype design, implementation, controller optimization, parameter estimation through simulation and in-vitro evaluation. Primarily, an innovative dialysate proportioning method is proposed for the development of the DTCM prototype. The study also involves a simulation of the heat transfer in a dialyzer and optimization of fuzzy logic controller design in real environment for the benefit of the DTCM evaluation. Finally, the DTCM prototype was evaluated and validated through in-vitro experiments.

For the simulation study, a Polyflux 210H dialyzer model was developed using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Results showed the decrease in blood temperature along the membrane could be one of the consequences of venous line cooling as reported in literature and thus necessitates an effective system to control the dialysate temperature.

Prior to the DTCM controller implementation, the performance of fuzzy logic-based temperature control was optimized from numerous designs. Optimum performance was found in the fuzzy logic design with a symmetrical rule base and the highest number of overlapping triangular membership functions. However, the optimized design shows a significant improvement in accuracy (±0.125°C) compared to the accuracy (±0.5°C) of published experimental study.

For the in-vitro evaluation of DTCM prototype, an extracorporeal thermal energy model incorporating the heat transfer in dialyzer was proposed to estimate the arterial and venous temperatures. The results showed that the estimated arterial and venous temperature under standard dialysate are in accordance to that of published literature. Then, the working of DTCM prototype was evaluated under real-time environment for pre-defined trend of body temperatures and other various parameters. The results showed a remarkable response in maintaining body temperature with a tolerance of ±0.09°C under shorter duration. In fact, the DTCM prototype was then validated and noted to have as lightly better error tolerance in comparison with BTM experimental data (±0.16°C).

The results obtained provides a gateway towards the development of dialysate temperature control system for HD machines. The potential of DTCM prototype to control the body temperature during the treatment has been proven through this work. The prototype design used in the current study can be implemented in HD machines, making it more affordable and accessible, paving the way to reduce HD related mortality.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Shanmugam, Anandan
Khiew, Poi Sim
Keywords: hemodialysis; dialysate temperature; control system; blood temperature monitor;
Subjects: T Technology > TK Electrical engineering. Electronics Nuclear engineering
Faculties/Schools: University of Nottingham, Malaysia > Faculty of Science and Engineering — Engineering > Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Item ID: 57031
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2019 06:33
Last Modified: 07 May 2020 11:16

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