Quantum tomography: asymptotic theory and statistical methodology

Acharya, Anirudh (2018) Quantum tomography: asymptotic theory and statistical methodology. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Recent experimental progress in the preparation and control of quantum systems has brought to light the importance of Quantum State Tomography (QST) in validating the results. In this thesis we investigate several aspects of QST, whose central problem is to devise estimation schemes for the recovery of an unknown state, given an ensemble of n independent identically prepared systems.

The key issues in tackling QST for large dimensional systems is the construction of physically relevant low dimensional state models, and the design of appropriate measurements. Inspired by compressed sensing tomography, in chapters 4, 5 we consider the statistical problem of estimating low rank states (r ≪ d) in the set-up of Multiple Ions Tomography (MIT), where r and d are the rank and the dimension of the state respectively. We investigate how the estimation error behaves with a reduction in the number of measurement settings, compared to ‘full’ QST in two setups - Pauli and random bases measurement designs. We study the estimation errors in this ‘incomplete’ measurement setup in terms of a concentration of the Fisher information matrix. For the random bases design we demonstrate that O(r logd) settings suffice for the mean square error w.r.t the Frobenius norm to achieve the optimal O(1/n) rate of estimation.

When the error functions are locally quadratic, like the Frobenius norm, then the expected error (or risk) of standard procedures achieves this optimal rate. However, for fidelity based errors such as the Bures distance we show that no ‘compressive’ recovery exists for states close to the boundary, and it is known that even with conventional ‘full’ tomography schemes the risk scales as O(1/√n) for such states and error functions. For qubit states this boundary is the surface of the Bloch sphere. Several estimators have been proposed to improve this scaling with ‘adaptive’ tomography. In chapter 6 we analyse this problem from the perspective of the maximum Bures risk over all qubit states. We propose two adaptive estimation strategies, one based on local measurements and another based on collective measurements utilising the results of quantum local asymptotic normality. We demonstrate a scaling of O(1/n) for the maximum Bures risk with both estimation strategies, and also discuss the construction of a minimax optimal estimator. In chapter 7 we return to the MIT setup and systematically compare several tomographic estimators in an extensive simulation study. We present and analyse results from this study, investigating the performance of the estimators across various states, measurement designs and error functions. Along with commonly used estimators like maximum likelihood, we propose and evaluate a few new ones. We finally introduce two web-based applications designed as tools for performing QST simulations online.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Guta, Madalin
Kypraios, Theodore
Keywords: Quantum Tomography
Subjects: Q Science > QA Mathematics
Q Science > QC Physics > QC170 Atomic physics. Constitution and properties of matter
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Science > School of Mathematical Sciences
Item ID: 49998
Depositing User: Acharya, Anirudh
Date Deposited: 19 Jul 2018 04:40
Last Modified: 07 May 2020 18:31
URI: https://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/49998

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