Mapping oil spill human health risk in rivers state, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Shittu, Whanda Ja'afaru (2014) Mapping oil spill human health risk in rivers state, Niger Delta, Nigeria. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Abstract

Oil pipelines play a significant role in crude oil transportation and bring danger close to communities along their paths. Pipeline accidents happen every now and then due to factors ranging from operational cause to third party damage. In the Niger Delta pipeline system, interdiction is common; therefore, every length and breadth of land covered by a pipeline is vulnerable to oil pollution, which can pose a threat to land use. Weak enforcement of rights of way led to encroachment by farmers and human dwellings, thereby bringing people in close proximity to pipelines. Considering the impact exposure can have on human health, a method was developed for identifying vulnerable communities within a designated potential pipeline impact radius, and generic assessment criteria developed for assessing land use exposure.

The GIS based model combines four weighted criteria layers, i.e. land cover, population, river and pipeline buffers in a multi-criteria decision making with analytical hierarchy process to develop an automated mapping tool designed to perform three distinct operations: firstly, to delineate pipeline hazard areas; secondly, establish potential pipeline impact radius; and thirdly, identify vulnerable communities in high consequence areas. The model was tested for sensitivity and found to be sensitive to river criterion; transferability on the other hand is limited to similar criteria variables.

To understand spatial distribution of oil spills, 443 oil spill incidents were examined and found to tend towards cluster distribution. Meanwhile, the main causes of spills include production error (34.8%) and interdiction (31.6%); interdiction alone discharged about 61.4% of crude oil. This brings to light the significance of oil pipeline spills and the tendency to increase the risk of exposure. The generic assessment criteria were developed for three land uses using CLEA v 1.06 for aromatic (EC5-EC44) and aliphatic (EC5-EC44) fractions. The use of the model and screening criteria are embedded in a framework designed to stimulate public participation in pipeline management and pipeline hazard mitigation, which policy makers and regulators in the oil industry can find useful in pipeline hazard management and exposure mitigation.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Nathanail, C.P.
Abrahart, R.
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Social Sciences, Law and Education > School of Geography
Item ID: 14115
Depositing User: EP, Services
Date Deposited: 05 Nov 2014 10:54
Last Modified: 26 Oct 2016 13:17
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/14115

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