Uncovering the sports livestreaming platform value co-creation process

Liu, Haoyu (2023) Uncovering the sports livestreaming platform value co-creation process. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Sport Livestreaming Platforms (SLSPs) have emerged as a new paradigm, offering a synchronised, interactive experience to sports enthusiasts. Despite their popularity, little is known about the processes through which viewers co-create value with service providers during their engagement on these platforms. More specifically, there are several research gaps: 1) empirical research using mixed methods on the value co-creation process at SLSPs is scarce; 2) the typology of SLSP viewer engagement behaviour is vaguely described in previous studies; 3) there is a lack of a comprehensive value co-creation model that explains how value is co-created by viewers with other actors on SLSPs; 4) a validated measurement scale, specifically tailored for evaluating the value co-creation process within the context of SLSPs, is notably absent. These research gaps lie in the understanding of how diverse viewers interact with various actors to derive value through their engagement experiences on SLSPs. The gaps are significant as the insights derived from studies could greatly assist firms running SLSPs to tailor their services more effectively, further enhancing user experience and engagement. This research addresses these research gaps by using a mixed-method design and single case studies to investigate four key areas: (1) classifying sport viewers based on their engagement behaviours on SLSPs; (2) proposing a Value-in-Engagement Experience Process (VEEP) model; (3) developing a valid measurement scale for VEEP on SLSPs, and (4) testing the model and identifying the value co-creation process across various viewer groups on SLSPs.

This research adopts a two-phase design. Phase one is for viewer classification. It applies a feedforward neural network (FFNN) to predict viewing duration and uses a two-step clustering analysis to analyse viewer behavioural data. This results in the classification of viewers into four categories: content consumers, super co-creators, co-creators, and tourists. In the second phase, a comprehensive VEEP model, developed through topic modelling analysis and semi-structured interviews, is proposed. VEEP is conceptualised as a multidimensional component model to reflect that viewers' evaluation of the viewing experience is based on how they are directly and indirectly engaging with the value propositions of multiple service providers in the SLSPs. VEEP represents four actors’ value proposition dimensions (streamer endorsement, player performance, platform information quality, and viewer passion), one experience dimension (viewing experience), and seven perceived value dimensions (sense of community, flow, enjoyment, self-identity, player identification, streamer proximity, and knowledge acquisition). The measurement scales of VEEP were developed and validated based on two quantitative research studies and through an exploratory principal factor analysis and a confirmatory maximum likelihood factor analysis. The validated model was tested for each of the four types of viewers based on structural equation modelling.

Findings include identifying four distinct viewer groups and proposing the multidimensional VEEP model. Furthermore, a reliable measure of VEEP is developed, unique experiences and perceived values by different viewer types are uncovered, and the meso-level value co-creation within the SLSPs context is explored.

This research provides theoretical contributions in four ways: 1) This study is the first attempt to empirically use mixed methods to examine the value co-creation process of viewing service experience in the context of SLSPs by considering multiple actors’ value propositions; 2) This study reveals that there are four distinct segments within the SLSPs that can be differentiated based on their transactional and non-transactional engagement behaviour. Thus, this study makes contributions to the existing literature on engagement behaviour; 3) The current study proposed a multidimensional model and measurements of the viewers’ value co-creation process, which help extend the existing value co-creation studies into the context of SLSPs; 4) This differentiation underscores the variability in viewers’ real-time interactions, indicating that viewers’ engagement behaviours can serve as filters for the service experience and value outcomes.

The practical contribution of this study points towards an evolved operational strategy that incorporates advanced analytics, refined audience segmentation, and a deep understanding of the diverse ways viewers engage with SLSPs. It underscores the importance of understanding the variability of viewer typologies and their distinct engagement behaviours, and perceived value derived from interacting with multiple actors during the co-creation process. Meanwhile, for SLSP firms, understanding the unique value propositions from the internal and external actors involved in co-creating the viewing experience can enable better strategizing and decision-making in providing customised services to viewers.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Tan, Kim Hua
Pawar, Kulwant
Keywords: sports livestreaming platforms; value co-creation; engagement behaviour; service operations; viewer segmentation
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation. Leisure
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Social Sciences, Law and Education > Nottingham University Business School
Item ID: 74081
Depositing User: Liu, Ms Haoyu
Date Deposited: 24 Jul 2023 04:40
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2023 04:40
URI: https://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/74081

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