Multicultural counselling competencies of Malaysian counsellors: a study based on students’ perceptions

Fanaiyan, Afsoon (2021) Multicultural counselling competencies of Malaysian counsellors: a study based on students’ perceptions. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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This research sets out to introduce a model for school counselling multicultural counselling competencies (SCMCC) in Malaysia based on students’ perspective. Literature suggests that Malaysia has a unique multicultural setting and hence there is a need for an SCMCC model in Malaysia. This study identifies the constructs of SCMCC in Malaysia through the perspective of the students. The SCMCC constructs found in this study were significantly different from non-Malaysian multicultural counselling competencies (MCC) and SCMCC models. The study proposes a culturally suitable validation tool which is used to develop and validate a new model for SCMCC in Malaysia.

Three main problems promote this study: First, the world’s existing models of MCC are mainly focused on the Euro-American cultural context and are developed based on a narrow segment of the population, resulting in the lack of cultural inclusiveness of existing models. Second, most of the MCC tools and measures - both in Malaysia and worldwide - are based on American MCC models that focus on three main constructs of MCC (knowledge, attitude, skill). Finally, Malaysian counselling and school counselling are based on the existing ethnocentric models that target cultures that are significantly different from Malaysian culture. The studies which set out to develop models for the Malaysian cultural context either used these existing tools or developed their tools based on the existing models.

This study uses an exploratory sequential mixed method to address these problems. It begins with using qualitative methods to identify the perspective of Malaysian students about the SCMCC. The constructs of SCMCC as perceived by the participants of this study significantly vary from the constructs of the SCMCC as described by the current models. These findings lead to the development of a tool that assesses the school counsellor multicultural counselling competencies from the Malaysian students’ perspective (SCMCC-MSP). The study utilises this tool in a quantitative phase for two main outcomes: to establish the validity and reliability of SCMCC-MSP, and to deploy structural equation modelling to suggest a cohesive model for SCMCC in Malaysia.

In the final stage, the data from the two phases of the study is linked and integrated to make three original major contributions to the field of knowledge. This study uses students’ perspective to present a model with 8 main factors and 33 clarifying statements that describe SCMCC constructs for Malaysia. It develops a 33-item tool that assesses the SCMCC through the perspective of Malaysian students. The study also makes a comparison between the findings of this study and the existing models and proposes a list of 11 unique characteristics of Malaysian SCMCC.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Subramaniam, Ganakumaran
Ramos, Hazel Melanie
Keywords: multicultural school counselling competency Malaysia
Subjects: L Education > LB Theory and practice of education
Faculties/Schools: University of Nottingham, Malaysia > Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences > School of Education
Item ID: 63925
Depositing User: FANAIYAN, AFSOON
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2021 04:40
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2023 04:30

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