The electromagnetic counterpart of the binary neutron star merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the optical counterpart using the Dark Energy Camera

Soares-Santos, M., Holz, D.E., Annis, J., Chornock, R., Herner, K., Berger, E., Brout, D., Chen, H.-Y., Kessler, R., Sako, M., Allam, S., Tucker, DL., Butler, R. E., Palmese, A., Doctor, Z., Diehl, H.T., Frieman, J., Yanny, B., Lin, H., Scolnic, D., Cowperthwaite, P., Neilsen, E., Marriner, J., Kuropatkin, N., Hartley, W.G., Paz-Chinchón, F., Alexander, K.D., Balbinot, E., Blanchard, P., Brown, D.A., Carlin, J.L., Conselice, Christopher J., Cook, E.R., Drlica-Wagner, A., Drout, M.R., Durret, F., Eftekhari, T., Farr, B., Finley, D.A., Foley, R.J., Fong, W., Fryer, C.L., García-Bellido, J., Gill, M.S.S., Gruendl, R.A., Hanna, C., Kasen, D., Li, T.S., Lopes, P.A.A., Lourenço, A.C.C., Margutti, R., Marshall, J.L., Matheson, T., Medina, G.E., Metzger, B.D., Muñoz, R.R., Muir, J., Nicholl, M., Quataert, E., Rest, A., Sauseda, M., Schlegel, D.J., Secco, L.F., Sobreira, F., Stebbins, A., Villar, V.A., Vivas, K., Walker, A.R., Wester, W., Williams, P.K.G., Zenteno, A., Zhang, Y., Abbott, T.M.C., Abdalla, F.B., Banerji, M., Bechtol, K., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Buckley-Geer, E., Burke, D.L., Rosell, A. Carnero, Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Castander, F.J., Crocce, M., Cunha, C.E., D’Andrea, C.B., Costa, L.N. da, Davis, C., Desai, S., Dietrich, J.P., Doel, P., Eifler, T.F., Fernandez, E., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., Gaztanaga, E., Gerdes, D.W., Giannantonio, T., Goldstein, D.A., Gruen, D., Gschwend, J., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Jain, B., James, D.J., Jeltema, T., Johnson, M.W.G., Johnson, M.D., Kent, S., Krause, E., Kron, R., Kuehn, K., Kuhlmann, S., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M.A.G., March, M., McMahon, R.G., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Mohr, J.J., Nichol, R.C., Nord, B., Ogando, R.L C., Petravick, D., Plazas, A.A., Romer, A.K., Roodman, A., Rykoff, E.S., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R.C., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M.E.C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Thomas, R.C., Troxel, M.A., Vikram, V., Wechsler, R.H. and Weller, J. (2017) The electromagnetic counterpart of the binary neutron star merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. I. Discovery of the optical counterpart using the Dark Energy Camera. Astrophysical Journal Letters, 848 (2). pp. 1-7. ISSN 2041-8213

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We present the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) discovery of the optical counterpart of the first binary neutron star merger detected through gravitational wave emission, GW170817. Our observations commenced 10.5 hours post-merger, as soon as the localization region became accessible from Chile. We imaged 70 deg2 in the i and z bands, covering 93% of the initial integrated localization probability, to a depth necessary to identify likely optical counterparts (e.g., a kilonova). At 11.4 hours post-merger we detected a bright optical transient located 10:600 from the nucleus of NGC4993 at redshift z = 0:0098, consistent (for H0 = 70 km s-1 Mpc-1) with the distance of 40±8 Mpc reported by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration (LVC). At detection the transient had magnitudes i=17.3 and z=17.4, and thus an absolute magnitude of Mi = -15.7, in the luminosity range expected for a kilonova. We identified 1,500 potential transient candidates. Applying simple selection criteria aimed at rejecting background events such as supernovae, we find the transient associated with NGC4993 as the only remaining plausible counterpart, and reject chance coincidence at the 99.5% confidence level. We therefore conclude that the optical counterpart we have identified near NGC4993 is associated with GW170817. This discovery ushers in the era of multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves, and demonstrates the power of DECam to identify the optical counterparts of gravitational-wave sources.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: binaries: close— catalogs— gravitational waves — stars: neutron— surveys
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Physics and Astronomy
Identification Number:
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 06 Nov 2017 13:35
Last Modified: 06 Nov 2017 19:58

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