Synthesis and performance analysis of ammonium dinitramide

Rahman, Asad (2017) Synthesis and performance analysis of ammonium dinitramide. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Ammonium dinitramide as non-corrosive, high performance, and Eco-friendly propellant was first synthesized by Russians in early 1970s, and then independently in early 1990s by Stanford Research International. Since then, there has been increased interest in its synthesis and performance analysis. Therefore, this project was aimed to enhance the study of ADN and explore new areas of its application. This project has 3 objectives where syntheses, prilling, electrolysis of ADN were studied.

In first objective, a new, modified ADN synthesis method was developed. This method was able to synthesize ADN at near-zero temperature by nitration of potassium sulfamate with mixture of nitric acid, sulfuric acid and trifluoroacetic acid. Once synthesized, parametric studies were performed to increase the reaction yield. It was developed by analyzing the existing ADN synthesis methods and their reaction mechanisms.

In the second objective, ADN prilling and sonication was performed via ultrasound treatment and the results were compared with ADN obtained by existing methods. It was necessary to perform prilling i.e. conversion of ADN crystal morphology because, ADN in its raw form have long needle like structure. Secondly, it has low critical humidity level of ADN i.e. 55.2%RH renders practical and handling issue in humid climate. Therefore, an ultrasound based prilling and coating method was developed, where ADN was sonicated in toluene as sonication medium along with surfactants and coating polymers. With this method, it was possible to combine prilling and coating of ADN particles into single step with results comparable to conventional melt prilling method.

In third objective, ADN based liquid monopropellant named FLP-103 was electrolytically decomposed and its performance was analyzed in micro thrusters. In order to decompose ADN by electrolysis, Micro thrusters were fabricated with Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and the experiments were analyzed by video footage, load cell thrust measurement and self-fabricated thrust measurement system. The thrusters were fabricated using combination of embossing and engraving techniques with PDMS to eliminate leakages and backpressure. Thrust measurement system, based on PDMS made torsion rod was developed as a proof of concept by using low cost sensors LDC-1000 from Texas instruments. Its results were compared with the results obtained by load cell thrust measurement. The results showed that ADN can be successfully decomposed via electrolysis in micro thrusters and electrolysis occurs predominately at cathode.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Jitkai, Chin
Keywords: ammonium dinitramide, prilling, sonication, electrolytic decomposition, micro thrusters
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculties/Schools: University of Nottingham, Malaysia > Faculty of Science and Engineering — Engineering > Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering
Item ID: 39411
Depositing User: RAHMAN, ASAD
Date Deposited: 21 Mar 2018 12:10
Last Modified: 07 May 2020 14:46

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