Increasing global mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the twenty-first century

Hutchinson, John P., McKeever, Tricia M., Fogarty, Andrew W., Navaratnam, Vidya and Hubbard, Richard B. (2014) Increasing global mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in the twenty-first century. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 11 (8). pp. 1176-1185. ISSN 2325-6621

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Rationale: Recent evidence from the United Kingdom suggests that the number of deaths from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is increasing, although comparable international data are limited.

Objectives: We aimed to collate death certification data from multiple countries to determine global trends in mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Methods: Data were obtained from the national statistics agencies of countries with relevant mortality records. Age-standardised mortality rates were calculated, and Poisson regression modelling was used to calculate rate ratios. Meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall estimate of mortality change over time.

Measurements and Main Results: Ten countries provided mortality data on pulmonary fibrosis over a period from 1999 to 2012. Age-standardised mortality ranged between 4 and 10 per 100,000 population for the most recent years of data, being lowest in Sweden (4.68 per 100,000), Spain (5.38 per 100,000) and New Zealand (5.55 per 100,000), and highest in the UK (9.84 per 100,000 in England and Wales, 10.71 per 100,000 in Scotland) and Japan (10.26 per 100,000). Positive associations with male sex and increasing age were consistently observed across all countries. There was an overall 2-3% annual increase in mortality depending on codes used for classification – for broad codes, overall rate ratio 1.03 (95% confidence intervals 1.02-1.04, p<0.001), for narrow codes, overall rate ratio 1.02 (95% confidence intervals 1.01-1.03, p<0.001). Validation in a local cohort showed that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was recorded as the underlying cause of death in two-thirds of known cases and anywhere on the death certificate in 80% of cases.

Conclusions: Mortality from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is increasing steadily worldwide, despite that fact that death certification will almost certainly underestimate true mortality. We estimate that there will be between 28000-65000 deaths in Europe and 13000-17000 deaths in the USA from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis clinical syndrome in 2014. Variation between countries remains but is less than previously reported.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Originally Published in: John P. Hutchinson, Tricia M. McKeever, Andrew W. Fogarty, Vidya Navaratnam, and Richard B. Hubbard "Increasing Global Mortality from Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Twenty-First Century", Annals of the American Thoracic Society, Vol. 11, No. 8 (2014), pp. 1176-1185. DOI: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201404-145OC Copyright © 2015 by the American Thoracic Society The final publication is available at
Keywords: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, epidemiology, mortality rates
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Epidemiology and Public Health
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Depositing User: Hutchinson, John
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2016 13:36
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2017 19:58

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