Multi-component complex hydrides for hydrogen storage

Price, Tobias E.C. (2010) Multi-component complex hydrides for hydrogen storage. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Hydrogen as an energy vector offers great potential for mobile energy generation through fuel cell technology, however this depends on safe, mobile and high density storage of hydrogen. The destabilised multi-component complex hydride system LiBH4 : MgH2 was investigated in order to characterise the destabilisation reactions which enable reduction of operating temperatures for this high capacity system (ca. 9.8 wt.%). In-situ neutron diffraction showed that regardless of stoichiometry similar reaction paths were followed forming LiH and MgB¬2¬ when decomposed under H¬2 and Mg-Li alloys (Mg0.816Li0.184 and Mg0.70Li0.30) when under dynamic vacuum. Hydrogen isotherms of the 0.3LiBH4 : MgH¬2¬ showed a dual plateau behaviour with the lower plateau due to the destabilised LiBH4 reaction. Thermodynamic data calculated from the isotherm results showed a significant reduction in the T(1bar) for LiBH4 to 322 C (cf. 459 C for LiBH4(l)).

Cycling behaviour of 0.3LiBH4 : MgH2 system decomposed under both reaction environments showed very fast kinetics on deuteriding at 400C and 100 bar D2, reaching 90 % conversion within 20 minutes. In contrast 2LiBH4 : MgH2 samples had kinetics an order of magnitude slower and after 4 hours conversions <50 %. These results demonstrate the strong influence of stoichiometry in the cycling kinetics compared to decomposition conditions.

Investigation of catalysts found dispersion of metal hydrides through long ball-milling times, or dispersion through reaction with metal halide additions provided the greatest degree of kinetic advantage, with pre-milled NbH providing the best kinetic improvement without reducing capacity due to Li-halide formation.

Finally, additions of LiAlH4 to the system formed an Al dispersion through the sample during decomposition, which acted both as a catalyst and destabilising agent on the MgH2 component, forming Mg-Al-Li alloys. Decomposition under H2 also showed a destabilisation effect for the LiBH4 component.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Walker, G.S.
Grant, D.
Keywords: Hydrogen, Storage, Hydrides, Complex, multi-component
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Engineering > Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
Item ID: 11988
Depositing User: EP, Services
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2011 15:47
Last Modified: 23 Dec 2017 09:44

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