One-dimensional Bose gases on an atom chip

Ferreras, Jorge (2018) One-dimensional Bose gases on an atom chip. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Ultracold atomic gases have proven to be an excellent tool for research in quantum systems. A Bose gas can be trapped on an atom chip using very well defined and tunable spatially-dependent potentials. The proximity of the atoms to the chip permits the use of low currents allowing for highly accurate temporal changes.

Excellent experimental apparatus is needed to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation with a sufficient atom number to study low-dimensional physics. The setup described in this document utilises a set of current-carrying structures on top of which an atom chip sits. For improved atom loading rate, a two-dimensional loading stage was added, extending the lifetime of the magnetic trap. From this loading stage to the atom chip, Bose-Einstein condensation of 105 Rubidium-87 atoms was achieved in less than 30 s, allowing for a large rate of experimental cycles. The high spatial and temporal tunability of this setup results in the ability to split the atomic cloud and quench the trapping potential geometry.

Maximising the ratio between trapping frequencies for different spatial directions leads to the system presenting features of a one-dimensional gas. Manipulating the coherence dynamics of a one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate creates fluctuations in the phase properties of the wavefunction. These fluctuations are observed as atom density perturbations after releasing the trapping potentials, and are a tool for temperature measurements. When the cloud of atoms is positioned at a few tens of micrometres from the surface of the atom chip, corrugations in the microstructures of the chip affect the trapping potentials at very low temperatures 1 µK. This effect is simulated and quantified in the thesis, with the aim of improving future setups. Additionally, the effect is explored for microscopy purposes.

The behaviour of a Bose-Einstein condensate, especially the expansion rate, has long been studied. In this thesis, the Gross-Pitaevskii Equation is introduced, finding its numerical solutions to the two-dimensional and three-dimensional forms, using the Split-Step Fourier Method. The results show very good agreement with the experimental results, as well as with other well- established theories of condensates. The creation of such a toolbox opens up the opportunity to further investigate the coherence dynamics of low-dimensional systems.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Fromhold, Mark
Hackermueller, Lucia
Keywords: Ultracold atomic gases; Bose gas; Bose-Einstein gas; Bose-Einstein condensation
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics > QC170 Atomic physics. Constitution and properties of matter
Q Science > QC Physics > QC770 Nuclear and particle physics. Atomic energy. Radioactivity
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Science > School of Physics and Astronomy
Item ID: 53074
Depositing User: Ferreras, Jorge
Date Deposited: 30 Oct 2018 12:07
Last Modified: 08 Feb 2019 10:00

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