Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes

Feinkohl, Insa and Keller, Markéta and Robertson, Christine M. and Morling, Joanne R. and McLachlan, Stela and Frier, Brian M. and Deary, Ian J. and Strachan, Mark W.J. and Price, Jackie F. (2015) Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive decline in older people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 58 (7). pp. 1637-1645. ISSN 1432-0428

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Abstract

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this work was to assess the role of well-established cardiovascular risk factors in the late-life cognitive decline of patients with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Data from 831 participants (aged 60-75 years) attending the 4 year follow-up of the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS) were used. Smoking history (pack-years), BP, HbA1c, plasma glucose and cholesterol were determined at baseline clinics (single time measurements) and/or from serial data recorded on a clinical management database from diagnosis until recruitment ('historical' data). Principal component analysis derived a factor, g, of general ability from seven cognitive tests. Linear regression models of follow-up g were adjusted for baseline g to represent 4 year cognitive change. 'Accelerated late-life cognitive decline' was defined as scoring in the lowest tertile of '4 year cognitive change' regression scores. Analyses controlled for age and sex.

RESULTS: A baseline history of moderate/heavy smoking (>/= 10 pack-years) and a 1% increased historical HbA1c (equivalent to an increase by 11 mmol/mol) predicted a 64% (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.14, 2.34; p = 0.007) and 21% (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.00, 1.45; p = 0.046) increased risk of accelerated cognitive decline, respectively. When treated as continuous measures, higher pack-years, historical HbA1c and historical BP emerged as significant independent predictors of 4 year decline in g (standardised beta range -0.07 to -0.14; all p </= 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Increased smoking and poorer glycaemic control (with relatively weaker findings for BP) during the life-course were independently associated with accelerated late-life cognitive decline. Where possible, evaluation is warranted of these risk factors as targets for intervention to reduce the burden of cognitive impairment in diabetes.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Blood glucose; Blood pressure; Cardiovascular risk ; Cholesterol; Cognitive impairment ; Glycaemic control; Hyperglycaemia; Older age; Smoking ; Type 2 diabetes
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Epidemiology and Public Health
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3581-0
Depositing User: Claringburn, Tara
Date Deposited: 27 Apr 2018 08:57
Last Modified: 27 Apr 2018 08:59
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/51422

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