The application of niobium compounds as catalysts in continuous flow reaction

Jin, Jing (2018) The application of niobium compounds as catalysts in continuous flow reaction. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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This Thesis describes the application of niobium oxide and niobium phosphate as solid acids for conducting continuous flow reactions, such as the Friedel-Crafts Reaction and the Skraup Reaction, and also as supports for photosensitiser immobilisation.

Chapter 1 introduces the concepts of green and sustainable chemistry, and give a review of niobium and niobium compounds, especially niobium oxide and niobium phosphate as well as their applications. A summary of flow chemistry is also presented. The continuous flow systems used to conduct the work of this Thesis are described in Chapter 2.

Chapter 3 introduces continuous alkylation of aniline with dimethyl carbonate or methanol over niobium solid acids. The synthesis process is automated by a self-optimisation system to search the best conditions for different products, including the NH2 group methylation product monomethyl aniline and dimethyl aniline, and the Friedel-Crafts alkylation product N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine.

Chapter 4 describes the first exploration of the continuous Skraup synthesis of quinolones with heterogeneous catalyst niobium phosphate. A dissymmetrics substituted quinoline compound, 4-(quinolin-6-yl methyl)aniline, was synthesized, and its crystal was grown and the structure was determined by crystallographic analysis for the first time.

Chapter 5 discussed the immobilisation of a photosensitiser meso-tetraphenylporphyrin on niobium solid acids, and the activity of these supported photocatalysts in continuous photo-oxidation, including the photo-oxidation of α-terpinene to ascaridole and the semi-synthesis of an antimalarial drug, artemisinin ART.

Finally, Chapter 6 summarises the work described in this Thesis and examines the success of the techniques and approaches discussed. A summary of potential routes for further study is also presented.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Poliakoff, Martyn
George, M.W.
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD241 Organic chemistry
Q Science > QD Chemistry > QD450 Physical and theoretical chemistry
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
Item ID: 50484
Depositing User: JIN, JING
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2018 14:06
Last Modified: 19 Jul 2020 04:30

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