Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of 2- and 2,8-substituted tetrathiotetracenes

Robert Garrett, Mary and Durán-Peña, María Jesús and Lewis, Willliam and Pudzs, Kaspars and Uzulis, Janis and Mihailovs, Igors and Tyril, Björk and Shine, Jonathan and Smith, Emily F. and Rutkis, Martins and Woodward, Simon (2018) Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of 2- and 2,8-substituted tetrathiotetracenes. Journal of Materials Chemistry C . ISSN 2050-7496

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Abstract

Reaction of elemental sulfur with 2-R1 and 2,8-R1,R2-substituted tetracenes (2) in refluxing DMF affords 5,6,11,12 tetrathiotetracenes (1) in good yields (74-99%) for a range of substituents where R1,R2 are: H,H (a); Me,H (b); MeO,H (c); Ph,H (d); Me,Me (e), iPr,Me (f, iPr = iso-propyl, CHMe2), Me,MeO (g); MeO,MeO (h). The reaction rate is limited only by the solubility of the tetracene (2); 2g-h being both the least soluble and slowest reacting. At partial conversion recovered single crystalline 2g led to its X-ray structure determination. Vacuum deposited (substrate deposition temperature 300 K, pressure 7 × 10-6 mbar, source temperature 500 K) thin films from 1 (of initial 88-99% purity) show final electrical conductivities, σ(in plane) from 1.40 × 10-5 S cm-1 (1g) to 3.74 × 10-4 S cm-1 (1b) for the resultant near pristine films; while 1d proved too involatile to be effectively sublimed under these conditions. In comparison, initially 95% pure TTT (1a) based films show σ(in plane) = 4.33 × 10-5 S cm-1. The purities of 1a-h are highly upgraded during sublimation. Well defined micro-crystallites showing blade, needle or mossy like habits are observed in the films. The Seebeck coefficients (Sb) of the prepared 1 range from 374 (1c) to 900 (1f) μV K-1 (vs. 855 μV K-1 for identically prepared 95% pure TTT, 1a). Doping of films of 1f (R1 = iPr, R2 = Me) with iodine produces optimal p-type behaviour: σ(in-plane) = 7.00 × 10-2 S cm-1, Sb = 175 μV K-1. The latter’s Power Factor (PF) at 0.33 μW m-1 K-2 is more than 500-times that of the equivalent I2-doped TTT films (1a, R1 = R2 = H), previously regarded as the optimal material for thin film thermoelectric devices using acene radical cation motifs.

Item Type: Article
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1039/C8TC00073E
Depositing User: Smith, Ruth
Date Deposited: 13 Mar 2018 12:08
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2018 09:18
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/50403

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