Stillbirth among women prescribed nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy: analysis of a large UK pregnancy cohort

Dhalwani, Nafeesa N. and Szatkowski, Lisa and Coleman, Tim and Fiaschi, Linda and Tata, Laila J. (2018) Stillbirth among women prescribed nicotine replacement therapy in pregnancy: analysis of a large UK pregnancy cohort. Nicotine and Tobacco Research . ISSN 1469-994X

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Abstract

Objective: To compare risk of stillbirth between maternal smokers and those prescribed NRT during pregnancy.

Design: Cross-sectional analysis nested in a pregnancy cohort with longitudinal routinely-recorded medical data.

Setting: United Kingdom primary care; The Health Improvement Network (THIN) general practice database

Population: 220,630 singleton pregnancies ending in live or stillbirth, 2001-2012

Methods: Women were categorised into three groups: NRT (prescribed during pregnancy or one month before conception); smokers; controls (non-smokers without a pregnancy NRT prescription).

Main Outcome Measure: odds ratios (OR) adjusted to maternal characteristics and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for stillbirth

Results: A total of 805 pregnancies ended in stillbirth (3.6/1,000 births). Absolute risks of stillbirth in NRT and smoker groups were both 5/1,000 births compared with 3.5/1,000 births in the control group. Compared with the control group, the adjusted odds of stillbirth in the NRT group was not statistically significant (OR=1.35, 95% CI 0.91-2.00), although it was similar in magnitude to that in the smokers group (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.13-1.77).

Conclusions: We found no evidence of a statistically significant association between being prescribed NRT during pregnancy and odds of stillbirth compared with non-smoking women. Although our study had much larger numbers than any previously, an even larger study with biochemically-validated smoking outcome data and close monitoring of NRT use throughout pregnancy is required to exclude effects on findings of potential exposure misclassification.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Stillbirth; Nicotine replacement therapy; Smoking; Pregnancy; Maternal smoking
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Primary Care
University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Epidemiology and Public Health
Identification Number: 10.1093/ntr/nty019
Depositing User: Claringburn, Tara
Date Deposited: 18 Jan 2018 09:26
Last Modified: 27 Mar 2018 09:43
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/49138

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