A versatile electrolyte system for electrodeposition of p-block elements from single ohase supercritical CH2F2

Bartlett, Philip N. and Burt, Jennifer and Cook, David A. and Cummings, Charles Y. and George, Michael W. and Hector, Andrew L. and Hasan, Mahboba M. and Ke, Jie and Levason, William and Pugh, David and Reid, Gillian and Richardson, Peter W. and Smith, David C. and Spencer, Joe and Zhang, Wenjian (2016) A versatile electrolyte system for electrodeposition of p-block elements from single ohase supercritical CH2F2. Chemistry - a European Journal, 22 (1). pp. 302-309. ISSN 1521-3765

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Abstract

For the first time, a versatile electrolyte bath is described that can be used to electrodeposit a wide range of p-block elements from supercritical difluoromethane (scCH2F2). The bath comprises the tetrabutylammonium chlorometallate complex of the element in an electrolyte of 50×10−3 mol dm−3 tetrabutylammonium chloride at 17.2 MPa and 358 K. Through the use of anionic ([GaCl4]−, [InCl4]−, [GeCl3]−, [SnCl3]−, [SbCl4]−, and [BiCl4]−) and dianionic ([SeCl6]2− and [TeCl6]2−) chlorometallate salts, the deposition of elemental Ga, In, Ge, Sn, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te is demonstrated. In all cases, with the exception of gallium, which is a liquid under the deposition conditions, the resulting deposits are characterised by SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, XRD and Raman spectroscopy. An advantage of this electrolyte system is that the reagents are all crystalline solids, reasonably easy to handle and not highly water or oxygen sensitive. The results presented herein significantly broaden the range of materials accessible by electrodeposition from supercritical fluid and open up the future possibility of utilising the full scope of these unique fluids to electrodeposit functional binary or ternary alloys and compounds of these elements.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bartlett, P. N., Burt, J., Cook, D. A., Cummings, C. Y., George, M. W., Hector, A. L., Hasan, M. M., Ke, J., Levason, W., Pugh, D., Reid, G., Richardson, P. W., Smith, D. C., Spencer, J., Suleiman, N. and Zhang, W. (2016), A Versatile Precursor System for Supercritical Fluid Electrodeposition of Main-Group Materials. Chem. Eur. J., 22: 302–309, which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.201503301. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Keywords: electrochemistry; main-group elements; metal–metal interactions; supercritical fluids; surface chemistry
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Chemistry
Identification Number: 10.1002/chem.201503301
Depositing User: Smith, Ruth
Date Deposited: 29 Sep 2017 11:26
Last Modified: 14 Oct 2017 08:34
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/46825

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