Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise as a function of age

Phillips, Bethan E. and Williams, John P. and Greenhaff, Paul L. and Smith, Kenneth and Atherton, Philip J. (2017) Physiological adaptations to resistance exercise as a function of age. JCI Insight, 2 (17). ISSN 2379-3708

[img]
Preview
PDF - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Available under Licence Creative Commons Attribution.
Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The impact of resistance exercise training (RE-T) across the life span is poorly defined.

METHODS. To resolve this, we recruited three distinct age cohorts of young (18–28 years; n = 11), middle-aged (45–55 years; n = 20), and older (nonsarcopenic; 65–75 years; n = 17) individuals to a cross-sectional intervention study. All subjects participated in 20 weeks of fully supervised whole-body progressive RE-T, undergoing assessment of body composition, muscle and vascular function, and metabolic health biomarkers before and after RE-T. Individuals also received stable isotope tracer infusions to ascertain muscle protein synthesis (MPS).

RESULTS. There was an age-related increase in adiposity, but only young and middle-age groups demonstrated reductions following RE-T. Increases in blood pressure with age were attenuated by RE-T in middle-aged, but not older, individuals, while age-related increases in leg vascular conductance were unaffected by RE-T. The index of insulin sensitivity was reduced by RE-T in older age. Despite being matched at baseline, only younger individuals increased muscle mass in response to RE-T, and there existed a negative correlation between age and muscle growth; in contrast, increases in mechanical quality were preserved across ages. Acute increases in MPS (upon feeding plus acute RE-T) were enhanced only in younger individuals, perhaps explaining greater hypertrophy.

CONCLUSION. Our data indicate that RE-T offsets some, but not all, negative characteristics of ageing — some of which are apparent in midlife.

Item Type: Article
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Medical Sciences and Graduate Entry Medicine
University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Life Sciences
Identification Number: 10.1172/jci.insight.95581
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 15 Sep 2017 11:30
Last Modified: 17 Oct 2017 04:07
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/46430

Actions (Archive Staff Only)

Edit View Edit View