The Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway is a general sensor of abiotic stress in flowering plants

Vicente, Jorge and Mendiondo, Guillermina M. and Movahedi, Mahsa and Peirats-Llobet, Marta and Juan, Yu-ting and Shen, Yu-yen and Dambire, Charlene and Smart, Katherine and Rodriguez, Pedro L. and Charng, Yee-yung and Gray, Julie E. and Holdsworth, Michael J. (2017) The Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway is a general sensor of abiotic stress in flowering plants. Current Biology . ISSN 1879-0445 (In Press)

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Abstract

Abiotic stresses impact negatively on plant growth, profoundly affecting yield and quality of crops. Although much is known about plant responses, very little is understood at the molecular level about the initial sensing of environmental stress. In plants hypoxia (low oxygen, which occurs during flooding) is directly sensed by the Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, through oxygen-dependent degradation of group VII Ethylene Response Factor transcription factors (ERFVIIs) via amino-terminal (Nt-) cysteine [1, 2]. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) we show that the pathway regulates plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. In Arabidopsis, genetic analyses revealed that response to these stresses is controlled by N-end rule regulation of ERFVII function. Oxygen sensing via the Cys-Arg/N-end rule in higher eukaryotes is linked through a single mechanism to nitric oxide (NO) sensing (Figure 1A) [3, 4]. In plants the major mechanism of NO synthesis is via NITRATE REDUCTASE (NR) an enzyme of nitrogen assimilation [5]. Here we identify a negative relationship between NR activity and NO levels, and stabilization of an artificial Nt-Cys substrate and ERFVII function in response to environmental changes. Furthermore, we show that ERFVIIs enhance abiotic stress responses via physical and genetic interactions with the chromatin-remodeling ATPase BRAHMA. We propose that plants sense multiple abiotic stresses through the Cys-Arg/N-end rule pathway either directly (via oxygen-sensing) or indirectly (via NO- sensing downstream of NR activity). This single mechanism can therefore integrate environment and response to enhance plant survival.

Item Type: Article
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Biosciences > Division of Plant and Crop Sciences
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 06 Sep 2017 13:51
Last Modified: 21 Sep 2017 17:00
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/45486

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