Generating a series of fine spatial and temporal resolution land cover maps by fusing coarse spatial resolution remotely sensed images and fine spatial resolution land cover maps

Li, Xiaodong and Ling, Feng and Foody, Giles M. and Ge, Yong and Zhang, Yihang and Du, Yun (2017) Generating a series of fine spatial and temporal resolution land cover maps by fusing coarse spatial resolution remotely sensed images and fine spatial resolution land cover maps. Remote Sensing of Environment, 196 . pp. 293-311. ISSN 1879-0704

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Abstract

Studies of land cover dynamics would benefit greatly from the generation of land cover maps at both fine spatial and temporal resolutions. Fine spatial resolution images are usually acquired relatively infrequently, whereas coarse spatial resolution images may be acquired with a high repetition rate but may not capture the spatial detail of the land cover mosaic of the region of interest. Traditional image spatial–temporal fusion methods focus on the blending of pixel spectra reflectance values and do not directly provide land cover maps or information on land cover dynamics. In this research, a novel Spatial–Temporal remotely sensed Images and land cover Maps Fusion Model (STIMFM) is proposed to produce land cover maps at both fine spatial and temporal resolutions using a series of coarse spatial resolution images together with a few fine spatial resolution land cover maps that pre- and post-date the series of coarse spatial resolution images. STIMFM integrates both the spatial and temporal dependences of fine spatial resolution pixels and outputs a series of fine spatial–temporal resolution land cover maps instead of reflectance images, which can be used directly for studies of land cover dynamics. Here, three experiments based on simulated and real remotely sensed images were undertaken to evaluate the STIMFM for studies of land cover change. These experiments included comparative assessment of methods based on single-date image such as the super-resolution approaches (e.g., pixel swapping-based super-resolution mapping) and the state-of-the-art spatial–temporal fusion approach that used the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Flexible Spatiotemporal DAta Fusion model (FSDAF) to predict the fine-resolution images, in which the maximum likelihood classifier and the automated land cover updating approach based on integrated change detection and classification method were then applied to generate the fine-resolution land cover maps. Results show that the methods based on single-date image failed to predict the pixels of changed and unchanged land cover with high accuracy. The land cover maps that were obtained by classification of the reflectance images outputted from ESTARFM and FSDAF contained substantial misclassification, and the classification accuracy was lower for pixels of changed land cover than for pixels of unchanged land cover. In addition, STIMFM predicted fine spatial–temporal resolution land cover maps from a series of Landsat images and a few Google Earth images, to which ESTARFM and FSDAF that require correlation in reflectance bands in coarse and fine images cannot be applied. Notably, STIMFM generated higher accuracy for pixels of both changed and unchanged land cover in comparison with other methods.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Spatial temporal fusion; Super-resolution mapping; Endmember extraction
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Social Sciences > School of Geography
Identification Number: 10.1016/j.rse.2017.05.011
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 07 Jun 2017 08:48
Last Modified: 07 Jun 2017 19:28
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/43435

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