Outcomes after acute intracerebral haemorrhage

Krishnan, Kailash (2017) Outcomes after acute intracerebral haemorrhage. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Abstract

Primary Intracerebral haemorrhage is a severe form of stroke with poor prognosis attributed to haematoma characteristics. High blood pressure is present during the acute phase of intracerebral haemorrhage and associated with poor outcome in part through expansion of haematoma.

Data from the ‘Efficacy of Nitric Oxide in Stroke trial’ (ENOS) was used to analyse the performance characteristics of qualitative and quantitative descriptors of intracerebral haematoma. The results showed that formal measurement of haemorrhage characteristics and visual estimates are reproducible. Intracerebral haemorrhage volumes measured using the modified ABC/2 formula were significantly lower compared to standard ABC/2 and computer assisted semi-automatic segmentation.

In 629 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage presenting within 48 hours, the effect of blood pressure lowering with transdermal glyceryl trinitrate was assessed. Glyceryl trinitrate lowered blood pressure, was safe but did not improve functional outcome. In a small group of patients treated within 6 hours, glyceryl trinitrate improved functional outcome.

Analysis of 246 patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage from ENOS was undertaken to assess whether there were any differences in functional outcome among those who continued prior antihypertensive drugs during the immediate stroke period compared to those assigned to stop temporarily for 7 days. The results were neutral indicating that there was no benefit in those who continued treatment.

Data of 1,011 patients with intracerebral haemorrhage in hyperacute trials from the VISTA collaboration showed differences in baseline characteristics and functional outcomes among patients from various ethnic backgrounds.

A systematic review was updated to assess the effect of 26 randomised controlled trials that aimed to alter blood pressure within one week of acute stroke. The results showed that blood pressure reduction did not improve functional outcome irrespective of stroke type. When examined by time, treatment within 6 hours appeared to benefit but the number of patients were small and more studies are needed. The analysis also showed that continuing prestroke antihypertensive drugs in the immediate period after stroke did not benefit and might be harmful.

In summary, this thesis provides new information on parameters used to estimate intracerebral haematoma, relationship between management of blood pressure and outcomes after haemorrhagic stroke. The work supports testing of whether very early blood pressure lowering after ictus is beneficial as is being undertaken in ongoing randomised controlled trials. Adjusting for ethnic differences may further identify patients in whom treatment may confer measurable advantage.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Bath, P.M.W.
Sprigg, N.
Keywords: Intracerebral haemorrhage, Haematoma, Blood pressure
Subjects: W Medicine and related subjects (NLM Classification) > WL Nervous system
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Item ID: 43228
Depositing User: Krishnan, Kailash
Date Deposited: 10 Oct 2017 09:50
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2017 00:26
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/43228

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