Numerical studies of quantum lattice systems

Michailidis, Alexios (2017) Numerical studies of quantum lattice systems. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Abstract

The research work in this thesis is based on strongly interacting quantum lattice systems. The biggest part of research was conducted using state-of-the-art tensor network simulations. Tensor networks provide efficient and highly accurate representations of quantum states when any simply connected patch of the quantum state is slightly entangled. Matrix Product States (MPS) is a tensor network representation for quantum states which is quasi-exact for one-dimensional systems when entanglement entropy of any bipartition of the state follows ``area-law". Projected Entangled Pair States (PEPS) is the extension of MPS for higher dimensional systems, where entanglement entropy area-law is non-trivial. These formalisms and their relevant ground state optimization techniques, Density Matrix Renormalization Group (DMRG) for MPS and Simple Update (SU) with Tensor Renormalization Group (TRG) for PEPS are thoroughly analysed.

Entanglement entropy area-law is usually obeyed by the ground state of local Hamiltonians, while generic highly excited states follow a volume-law (they span a finite part of the Hilbert space). Recently, a class of interacting system was shown to undergo a dynamical phase transition (Many Body Localization) where the entropy of every eigenstate follows an area-law. This transition is achieved when the system is highly disordered and the quantum many body state becomes localized similarly to the free particle Anderson localization. The area-law property makes highly excited eigenstates of Many Body Localized (MBL) systems efficiently represented by the MPS ansatz. We develop a highly optimized algorithm (eDMRG) which goes beyond ground state optimization and successfully target eigenstates in any part of the spectrum. This algorithm is used together with analytical calculations, based on local integrability of MBL systems, to identify the universal behaviour of the entanglement spectrum of highly excited eigenstates in MBL systems.

In the second part we study interacting bosons in 2D optical lattices. Strongly interacting bosons are simulated using the Bose-Hubbard (BH) model when the interactions are strictly local and the Extended Bose-Hubbard (EBH) model, when additional dipolar interactions are present. The ground states of BH/EBH Hamiltonians in a hexagonal lattice are studied. The phase spectrum includes various insulating and critical phases which are studied in detail using infinite-PEPS ansatz. Additional results on entanglement entropy scaling with respect to the filling of the lattice are presented.

Finally, a strongly interacting Harper-Hofstadter Hamiltonian is realized by combining synthetic fields with the BH model. The homogeneity of the system is then broken by a parabolic trapping potential, similar to the ones used in cold atom experiments. Using time-dependent Gutzwiller ansatz (GA) the expansion dynamics of the cloud in large square lattices are studied. In contrast to the expansion dynamics of the BH model, it is found that the synthetic fields generate a self-trapping effect. Using phenomenology and simulations the dynamics are studied in the hard-core and soft-core limit.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Benedict, Keith
Fromhold, Mark
Keywords: Condensed Matter, Quantum information, Tensor Networks
Subjects: Q Science > QC Physics > QC770 Nuclear and particle physics. Atomic energy. Radioactivity
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Science > School of Physics and Astronomy
Item ID: 42574
Depositing User: Michailidis, Alexios
Date Deposited: 12 Jul 2017 04:40
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2017 00:50
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/42574

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