Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB

Ade, P.A.R. and Aghanim, N. and Akrami, Y. and Aluri, P.K. and Arnaud, M. and Ashdown, M. and Aumont, J. and Baccigalupi, C. and Banday, A.J. and Barreiro, R.B. and Bartolo, N. and Basak, S. and Battaner, E. and Benabed, K. and Benoît, A. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernard, J.-P. and Bersanelli, M. and Bielewicz, P. and Bock, J.J. and Bonaldi, A. and Bonavera, L. and Bond, J.R. and Borrill, J. and Bouchet, F.R. and Boulanger, F. and Bucher, M. and Burigana, C. and Butler, R.C. and Calabrese, E. and Cardoso, J.-F. and Casaponsa, B. and Catalano, A. and Challinor, A. and Chamballu, A. and Chiang, H.C. and Christensen, P.R. and Church, S. and Clements, D.L. and Colombi, S. and Colombo, L.P.L. and Combet, C. and Contreras, D. and Couchot, F. and Coulais, A. and Crill, B.P. and Cruz, M. and Curto, A. and Cuttaia, F. and Danese, L. and Davies, R.D. and Davis, R.J. and de Bernardis, P. and de Rosa, A. and de Zotti, G. and Delabrouille, J. and Désert, F.-X. and Diego, J.M. and Dole, H. and Donzelli, S. and Doré, O. and Douspis, M. and Ducout, A. and Dupac, X. and Efstathiou, G. and Elsner, F. and Enßlin, T.A. and Eriksen, H.K. and Fantaye, Y. and Fergusson, J. and Fernandez-Cobos, R. and Finelli, F. and Forni, O. and Frailis, M. and Fraisse, A.A. and Franceschi, E. and Frejsel, A. and Frolov, A. and Galeotta, S. and Galli, S. and Ganga, K. and Gauthier, C. and Ghosh, T. and Giard, M. and Giraud-Héraud, Y. and Gjerløw, E. and González-Nuevo, J. and Górski, K.M. and Gratton, S. and Gregorio, A. and Gruppuso, A. and Gudmundsson, J.E. and Hansen, F.K. and Hanson, D. and Harrison, D.L. and Henrot-Versillé, S. and Hernández-Monteagudo, C. and Herranz, D. and Hildebrandt, S.R. and Hivon, E. and Hobson, M. and Holmes, W.A. and Hornstrup, A. and Hovest, W. and Huang, Z. and Huffenberger, K.M. and Hurier, G. and Jaffe, A.H. and Jaffe, T.R. and Jones, W.C. and Juvela, M. and Keihänen, E. and Keskitalo, R. and Kim, J. and Kisner, T.S. and Knoche, J. and Kunz, M. and Kurki-Suonio, H. and Lagache, G. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Lamarre, J.-M. and Lasenby, A. and Lattanzi, M. and Lawrence, C.R. and Leonardi, R. and Lesgourgues, J. and Levrier, F. and Liguori, M. and Lilje, P.B. and Linden-Vørnle, M. and Liu, H. and López-Caniego, M. and Lubin, P.M. and Macías-Pérez, J.F. and Maggio, G. and Maino, D. and Mandolesi, N. and Mangilli, A. and Marinucci, D. and Maris, M. and Martin, P.G. and Martínez-González, E. and Masi, S. and Matarrese, S. and McGehee, P. and Meinhold, P.R. and Melchiorri, A. and Mendes, L. and Mennella, A. and Migliaccio, M. and Mikkelsen, K. and Mitra, S. and Miville-Deschênes, M.-A. and Molinari, D. and Moneti, A. and Montier, L. and Morgante, G. and Mortlock, D. and Moss, Adam and Munshi, D. and Murphy, J.A. and Naselsky, P. and Nati, F. and Natoli, P. and Netterfield, C.B. and Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U. and Noviello, F. and Novikov, D. and Novikov, I. and Oxborrow, C.A. and Paci, F. and Pagano, L. and Pajot, F. and Pant, N. and Paoletti, D. and Pasian, F. and Patanchon, G. and Pearson, T.J. and Perdereau, O. and Perotto, L. and Perrotta, F. and Pettorino, V. and Piacentini, F. and Piat, M. and Pierpaoli, E. and Pietrobon, D. and Plaszczynski, S. and Pointecouteau, E. and Polenta, G. and Popa, L. and Pratt, G.W. and Prézeau, G. and Prunet, S. and Puget, J.-L. and Rachen, J.P. and Rebolo, R. and Reinecke, M. and Remazeilles, M. and Renault, C. and Renzi, A. and Ristorcelli, I. and Rocha, G. and Rosset, C. and Rossetti, M. and Rotti, A. and Roudier, G. and Rubiño-Martín, J.A. and Rusholme, B. and Sandri, M. and Santos, D. and Savelainen, M. and Savini, G. and Scott, D. and Seiffert, M.D. and Shellard, E.P.S. and Souradeep, T. and Spencer, L.D. and Stolyarov, V. and Stompor, R. and Sudiwala, R. and Sunyaev, R. and Sutton, D. and Suur-Uski, A.-S. and Sygnet, J.-F. and Tauber, J.A. and Terenzi, L. and Toffolatti, L. and Tomasi, M. and Tristram, M. and Trombetti, T. and Tucci, M. and Tuovinen, J. and Valenziano, L. and Valiviita, J. and Van Tent, B. and Vielva, P. and Villa, F. and Wade, L.A. and Wandelt, B.D. and Wehus, I.K. and Yvon, D. and Zacchei, A. and Zibin, J.P. and Zonca, A. (2016) Planck 2015 results. XVI. Isotropy and statistics of the CMB. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 594 . A16/1-A16/62. ISSN 1432-0746

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Abstract

We test the statistical isotropy and Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies using observations made by the Planck satellite. Our results are based mainly on the full Planck mission for temperature, but also include some polarization measurements. In particular, we consider the CMB anisotropy maps derived from the multi-frequency Planck data by several component-separation methods. For the temperature anisotropies, we find excellent agreement between results based on these sky maps over both a very large fraction of the sky and a broad range of angular scales, establishing that potential foreground residuals do not affect our studies. Tests of skewness, kurtosis, multi-normality, N-point functions, and Minkowski functionals indicate consistency with Gaussianity, while a power deficit at large angular scales is manifested in several ways, for example low map variance. The results of a peak statistics analysis are consistent with the expectations of a Gaussian random field. The “Cold Spot” is detected with several methods, including map kurtosis, peak statistics, and mean temperature profile. We thoroughly probe the large-scale dipolar power asymmetry, detecting it with several independent tests, and address the subject of a posteriori correction. Tests of directionality suggest the presence of angular clustering from large to small scales, but at a significance that is dependent on the details of the approach. We perform the first examination of polarization data, finding the morphology of stacked peaks to be consistent with the expectations of statistically isotropic simulations. Where they overlap, these results are consistent with the Planck 2013 analysis based on the nominal mission data and provide our most thorough view of the statistics of the CMB fluctuations to date.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: © ESO, 2016
Keywords: cosmology: observations; cosmic background radiation; polarization; methods: data analysis; methods: statistical
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Physics and Astronomy
Identification Number: 10.1051/0004-6361/201526681
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 02 May 2017 11:15
Last Modified: 13 Oct 2017 00:53
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/42446

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