Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp

Malcicka, Miriama and Bezemer, T. Martijn and Visser, Bertanne and Bloemberg, Mark and Snart, Charles J.P. and Hardy, Ian C.W. and Harvey, Jeffrey A. (2015) Multi-trait mimicry of ants by a parasitoid wasp. Scientific Reports, 5 . 8043/1-8043/6. ISSN 2045-2322

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Abstract

Many animals avoid attack from predators through toxicity or the emission of repellent chemicals. Defensive mimicry has evolved in many species to deceive shared predators, for instance through colouration and other morphological adaptations, but mimicry hardly ever seems to involve multi-trait similarities. Here we report on a wingless parasitoid wasp that exhibits a full spectrum of traits mimicing ants and affording protection against ground-dwelling predators (wolf spiders). In body size, morphology and movement Gelis agilis (Ichneumonidae) is highly similar to the black garden ant (Lasius niger) that shares the same habitat. When threatened, G. agilis also emits a volatile chemical that is similar to an ant-produced chemical that repels spiders. In bioassays with L. niger, G. agilis, G. areator, Cotesia glomerata and Drosophila melanogaster, ants and G. agilis were virtually immune to spider attack, in contrast the other species were not. Volatile characterisation with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified G. agilis emissions as 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, a known insect defence semiochemical that acts as an alarm pheromone in ants. We argue that multi-trait mimicry, as observed in G. agilis, might be much more common among animals than currently realized.

Item Type: Article
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Biosciences
University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Pharmacy
Identification Number: 10.1038/srep08043
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2017 11:23
Last Modified: 24 Mar 2017 16:29
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/41521

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