Sustainable remediation in Nigeria

Ahiamadu, Nnamdi Michael (2017) Sustainable remediation in Nigeria. MRes thesis, University of Nottingham.

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This research was carried out to evaluate the impact of the adoption and implementation of the emerging concept of sustainable remediation to the practice of remediation in Nigeria. The study strategy was by desktop site risk assessment, conceptual site modelling, remediation options appraisal and sustainability assessment of a simulated petroleum-contaminated site (AIREGIN) in the Niger Delta of Nigeria coupled with stakeholder engagement. The literature available on the environmental and industrial geography of the Niger Delta was drawn upon in the creation of the simulated site for the assessment. Questionnaires were used to identify readily available remediation options for the treatment of petroleum-contaminated soil in Nigeria. The questionnaire, which was sent to thirty (30) respondents (ten (10) each from operators, regulators and contractors) identified eight remediation options (Monitored Natural Attenuation, Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation, Bio-piles, Composting, Land farming, Incineration, Thermal desorption and Excavation, retrieval and offsite disposal) as widely used in Nigeria and six (6) options (Bioventing, Phytoremediation, Soil flushing, Soil Vapour Extraction (SVE), Chemical Reduction and Oxidation and Soil washing) as easily importable into Nigeria. Remediation options appraisal carried out identified seven (7) options (Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation, Bio-piles, Composting, Landfarming, Incineration, Thermal Desorption and Bio-venting) as feasible for the site. This reflects the general practice in Nigeria, as most remediation projects are mostly biological and thermal treatments. Face to face and telephone interviews conducted with ten practitioners revealed a lack of knowledge, the existing legal framework, funding and incessant site re-contamination as major setbacks to the adoption of risk based land management in general and sustainable remediation in particular. The sustainability assessment and sensitivity analysis resulted in identifying Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation as the most sustainable remediation option for the AIREGIN site. The research identified as critical limitations to the implementation of sustainable remediation the lack of regulatory framework, lack of awareness and expertise, ambiguous target and intervention values leading to lack of consensus on remedial objectives, poor implementation of the existing risk assessment and options appraisal methods, lack of transparency and commitment in the implementation of existing regulatory regime and general lack of literature on sustainable remediation in Nigeria. The research has shown that existing legislation and guidelines in contaminated land management need to be revised to include sustainability assessment, the harmonization of the target and intervention values using scientific means to determine background values, extensive training and education of regulators; and the clear definition of the involvement and strategy of engagement of local communities in the remediation process by the Nigerian regulators. The impact of the adoption and implementation of sustainable development in Nigeria were viewed from legal, economic, social and environmental dimensions. It has been concluded that sustainable remediation brings to bear a structured and transparent means of deciding how to remediate contaminated lands and is implementable in Nigeria if the recommendations of this research are taken into consideration.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (MRes)
Supervisors: Nathanail, Paul
Keywords: Sustainable Remediation, AIREGIN Site, Conceptual Site Model, Petroleum-Contaminated Soil, Risk Assessment, Sustainability Assessment, Nigeria
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Social Sciences, Law and Education > School of Geography
Item ID: 39962
Depositing User: AHIAMADU, NNAMDI
Date Deposited: 15 Mar 2017 04:40
Last Modified: 19 Oct 2017 17:47

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