Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in non-saline environments within the Caryophyllales

White, Philip J. and Bowen, Helen C. and Broadley, Martin R. and El-Serehy, Hamed A. and Neugebauer, Konrad and Taylor, Anna and Thompson, Jacqueline A. and Wright, Gladys (2016) Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in non-saline environments within the Caryophyllales. New Phytologist . ISSN 1469-8137

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Abstract

The prevalence of sodium (Na) “hyperaccumulator” species, which exhibit abnormally large shoot sodium concentrations ([Na]shoot) when grown in non-saline environments, was investigated among angiosperms in general and within the Caryophyllales order in particular.

Shoot Na concentrations were determined in 334 angiosperm species, representing 35 orders, grown hydroponically in a non-saline solution.

Many Caryophyllales species exhibited abnormally large [Na]shoot when grown hydroponically in a non-saline solution. The bimodal distribution of the log-normal [Na]shoot of species within the Caryophyllales suggested at least two distinct [Na]shoot phenotypes within this order. Mapping the trait of Na-hyperaccumulation onto the phylogenetic relationships between Caryophyllales families, and between subfamilies within the Amaranthaceae, suggested that the trait evolved several times within this order: in an ancestor of the Aizoaceae, but not the Phytolaccaceae or Nyctaginaceae, in ancestors of several lineages formerly classified as Chenopodiaceae, but not in the Amaranthaceae sensu stricto, and in ancestors of species within the Cactaceae, Portulacaceae, Plumbaginaceae,Tamaricaceae and Polygonaceae.

In conclusion, a disproportionate number of Caryophyllales species behave as Na51 hyperaccumulators and multiple evolutionary origins of this trait can be identified within this order.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: White, P. J., Bowen, H. C., Broadley, M. R., El-Serehy, H. A., Neugebauer, K., Taylor, A., Thompson, J. A. and Wright, G. (2016), Evolutionary origins of abnormally large shoot sodium accumulation in nonsaline environments within the Caryophyllales. New Phytol. doi:10.1111/nph.14370 which has been published in final form at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/nph.14370/full This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.
Keywords: Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Caryophyllales, Halophyte, Hyperaccumulation, Phylogeny, Shoot, Sodium (Na)
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Science > School of Biosciences > Division of Plant and Crop Sciences
Identification Number: 10.1111/nph.14370
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 15 Nov 2016 09:32
Last Modified: 06 Dec 2017 01:36
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/38731

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