Rabies outbreak in Greece during 2012–2014: use of Geographical Information System for analysis, risk assessment and control

Giannakopoulos, A. and Valiakos, G. and Papaspyropoulos, K. and Dougas, G. and Korou, L. M. and Tasioudi, K. E. and Fthenakis, G. C. and Hutchings, M. R. and Kaimaras, D. and Tsokana, C. N. and Iliadou, P. and Spyrou, V. and Tzani, M. and Birtsas, P. and Kostoglou, P. and Sokos, C. and Doudounakis, S. and Yon, L. and Hannant, Duncan and Artois, M. and Tsiodras, S. and Hadjichristodoulou, C. and Billinis, C. (2016) Rabies outbreak in Greece during 2012–2014: use of Geographical Information System for analysis, risk assessment and control. Epidemiology and Infection, 144 (14). pp. 3068-3079. ISSN 1469-4409

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Abstract

The objectives of this work were (i) geographical analysis of the 2012–2014 outbreak of rabies in Greece using GIS and (ii) comparative analysis of animal cases with data of potential human exposure to rabies together with environmental data, in order to provide information for risk assessment, effective monitoring and control. Most animal cases (40/48) involved red foxes, while domestic animals were also diagnosed with rabies. Overall, 80% of the cases were diagnosed in central northern Greece; 75% of the cases were diagnosed in low altitudes (<343·5 m), within a distance of 1 km from human settlements. Median distance from livestock farms was 201·25 m. Most people potentially exposed to rabies (889/1060) presented with dog bite injuries. Maximum entropy analysis revealed that distance from farms contributed the highest percentage in defining environmental niche profiles for rabid foxes. Oral vaccination programmes were implemented in 24 administrative units of the country during 2013 and 2014, covering a total surface area of ~60 000 km2. Rabies re-occurrence in Greece emphasizes the need for ongoing surveillance in cross-border areas and in areas with intense human activity.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Fox, Geographical Information System, Greece, rabies
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham, UK > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine and Science
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0950268816001527
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 26 Oct 2016 13:53
Last Modified: 01 Nov 2016 19:14
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/37950

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