Diabetes treatments and risk of heart failure, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: cohort study in primary care

Hippisley-Cox, Julia and Coupland, Carol (2016) Diabetes treatments and risk of heart failure, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: cohort study in primary care. BMJ, 354 (i3477). pp. 1-14. ISSN 1756-1833

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Abstract

Objective: To assess associations between risks of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality and different diabetes drugs in people with type 2 diabetes, particularly newer agents, including gliptins and thiazolidinediones (glitazones).

Design: Open cohort study.

Setting: 1243 general practices contributing data to the QResearch database in England.

Participants: 469 688 people with type 2 diabetes aged 25-84 years between 1 April 2007 and 31 January 2015.

Exposures: Diabetes drugs (glitazones, gliptins, metformin, sulphonylureas, insulin, other) alone and in combination.

Main outcome measure: First recorded diagnoses of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality recorded on the patients’ primary care, mortality, or hospital record. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios for diabetes treatments, adjusting for potential confounders.

Results: During follow-up, 21 308 patients (4.5%) received prescriptions for glitazones and 32 533 (6.9%) received prescriptions for gliptins. Compared with non-use, gliptins were significantly associated with an 18% decreased risk of all cause mortality, a 14% decreased risk of heart failure, and no significant change in risk of cardiovascular disease; corresponding values for glitazones were significantly decreased risks of 23% for all cause mortality, 26% for heart failure, and 25% for cardiovascular disease. Compared with no current treatment, there were no significant associations between monotherapy with gliptins and risk of any complications. Dual treatment with gliptins and metformin was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 38% for heart failure, 33% for cardiovascular disease, and 48% for all cause mortality). Triple treatment with metformin, sulphonylureas, and gliptins was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 40% for heart failure, 30% for cardiovascular disease, and 51% for all cause mortality). Compared with no current treatment, monotherapy with glitazone was associated with a 50% decreased risk of heart failure, and dual treatment with glitazones and metformin was associated with a decreased risk of all three outcomes (reductions of 50% for heart failure, 54% for cardiovascular disease, and 45% for all cause mortality); dual treatment with glitazones and sulphonylureas was associated with risk reductions of 35% for heart failure and 25% for cardiovascular disease; triple treatment with metformin, sulphonylureas, and glitazones was associated with decreased risks of all three outcomes (reductions of 46% for heart failure, 41% for cardiovascular disease, and 56% for all cause mortality).

Conclusions: There are clinically important differences in risk of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, and all cause mortality between different diabetes drugs alone and in combination. Overall, use of gliptins or glitazones was associated with decreased risks of heart failure, cardiovascular disease, and all cause mortality compared with non-use of these drugs. These results, which do not account for levels of adherence or dosage information and which are subject to confounding by indication, might have implications for prescribing of diabetes drugs.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Diabetes treatments;heart failure; cardiovascular disease; all-cause mortality; primary care.
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham UK Campus > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Primary Care
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i3477
Related URLs:
URLURL Type
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/UNSPECIFIED
Depositing User: McCambridge, Mrs April
Date Deposited: 22 Jul 2016 07:21
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2016 02:59
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/35251

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