Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms

Shephard, Elizabeth and Jackson, Georgina M. and Groom, Madeleine J. (2016) Electrophysiological correlates of reinforcement learning in young people with Tourette syndrome with and without co-occurring ADHD symptoms. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 51 . pp. 17-27. ISSN 1873-474X

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Abstract

Altered reinforcement learning is implicated in the causes of Tourette syndrome (TS) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). TS and ADHD frequently co-occur but how this affects reinforcement learning has not been investigated. We examined the ability of young people with TS (n = 18), TS+ADHD (N = 17), ADHD (n = 13) and typically developing controls (n = 20) to learn and reverse stimulus-response (S-R) associations based on positive and negative reinforcement feedback. We used a 2 (TS-yes, TS-no) x 2 (ADHD-yes, ADHD-no) factorial design to assess the effects of TS, ADHD, and their interaction on behavioural (accuracy, RT) and event-related potential (stimulus-locked P3, feedback-locked P2, feedback-related negativity, FRN) indices of learning and reversing the S-R associations. TS was associated with intact learning and reversal performance and largely typical ERP amplitudes. ADHD was associated with lower accuracy during S-R learning and impaired reversal learning (significantly reduced accuracy and a trend for smaller P3 amplitude). The results indicate that co-occurring ADHD symptoms impair reversal learning in TS+ADHD. The implications of these findings for behavioural tic therapies are discussed.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Tourette syndrome; ADHD; Reinforcement learning; Comorditity; Event-related potentials; Electrophysiology
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham UK Campus > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine > Division of Psychiatry
Identification Number: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2016.04.005
Depositing User: Eprints, Support
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2016 12:10
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2016 10:05
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/32883

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