New evidence of factor structure and measurement invariance of the SDQ across five European nations

Ortuño-Sierra, Javier and Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo and Aritio-Solana, Rebeca and Velasco, Alvaro Moreno and de Luis, Edurne Chocarro and Schumann, Gunter and Cattrell, Anna and Flor, Herta and Nees, Frauke and Banaschewski, Tobias and Bokde, Arun and Whelan, Rob and Buechel, Christian and Bromberg, Uli and Conrod, Patricia and Frouin, Vincent and Papadopoulos, Dimitri and Gallinat, Juergen and Garavan, Hugh and Heinz, Andreas and Walter, Henrik and Struve, Maren and Gowland, Penny and Paus, Tomáš and Poustka, Luise and Martinot, Jean-Luc and Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure and Vetter, Nora C. and Smolka, Michael N. and Lawrence, Claire (2015) New evidence of factor structure and measurement invariance of the SDQ across five European nations. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry . ISSN 1018-8827

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The main purpose of the present study was to test the internal structure and to study the measurement invariance of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), self-reported version, in five European countries. The sample consisted of 3012 adolescents aged between 12 and 17 years (M = 14.20; SD = 0.83). The five-factor model (with correlated errors added), and the five-factor model (with correlated errors added) with the reverse-worded items allowed to cross-load on the Prosocial subscale, displayed adequate goodness of-fit indices. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the five-factor model had partial strong measurement invariance by countries. A total of 11 of the 25 items were non-invariant across samples. The level of internal consistency of the Total difficulties scores was .84, ranging between .69 and .78 for the SDQ subscales. The findings indicate that the SDQ's scales need to be modified in various ways for screening emotional and behavioural problems in the five European countries that were analyzed.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: The final publication is available at Springer via
Keywords: SDQ · Self-report · Adolescents · Factorial structure · Measurement invariance · Behavioural problems
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham UK Campus > Faculty of Science > School of Psychology
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Depositing User: Lawrence, Claire
Date Deposited: 10 Sep 2015 10:51
Last Modified: 14 Sep 2016 02:24

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