Investigating the effects of physical and cognitive demands on quality of performance and subjective responses under pacing/ takt time

Shaikh, Shakil Ahmed (2015) Investigating the effects of physical and cognitive demands on quality of performance and subjective responses under pacing/ takt time. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

PDF (Thesis - as examined) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Download (4MB) | Preview


Assembly work requires high levels of performance and quality but may involve complex cognitive and physical tasks. There is evidence that physical and cognitive workloads are not separate, but may interact. Work in exercise and simple physical tasks suggests that physical load may lead to changes in cognitive performance, and in perceived workload. The aim of this thesis is to examine physical and cognitive interactions that might affect assembly work.

First, observation was undertaken in industry to identify the physical and cognitive factors relevant to examples of assembly lines. From this, a task analysis of a simulated assembly task was developed. Three experimental studies were conducted, based upon the simulated assembly task, in order to investigate three main assembly variables; working height, memory load and pacing. The first study showed that the number of completed assemblies was reduced when performed at higher pacing and while working at above shoulder height. The number of components dropped was higher when performed at above shoulder height. When the task was performed at elbow height ‘wait’ time increased as the beep time was found to be higher at elbow height than the above shoulder height, which led to increase wait time when performing the task at elbow height. Subjective measures (NASA TLX) showed that temporal demand and effort were reported as higher during high pacing. Perceived physical and temporal demand increased when working above shoulder height. An interaction on subjective measure was identified between pacing and working height. Performance of NASA TLX was found to be poor when performing the assembly operation at high pacing/Takt and above shoulder height as compared to working at high pacing/ Takt and elbow height.

In the second study the experimental design was modified by changing the assembly order to variable assembly and consistent assembly, which represented single model assembly line (where only one type of assembly is being processed) and mixed model assembly line (different types of products being processed). Study 2 was found to be more mentally demanding due to task complexity. However, it was also found that completed assemblies were higher for the consistent assembly task. Subjective measures reported stress as being higher for higher pacing and variable assembly.

The final study combined the variables from the first two studies as well as investigating different levels of memory load. Performance times for variable assembly were longer and resulted in less correct code responses. A higher memory load resulted in a higher performance time and lower correct code responses as well as fewer completed assemblies. An interaction between working height and perceived mental workload was found. Results showed that perceived temporal demand and perceived effort of NASA TLX were found to be higher when performing the assembly operation at elbow height and high memory as compared to the assembly operation performed at elbow height and low memory. It was also found that memory load affects perceived physical demand.

For industry the findings suggest that in variable (mixed model) assembly different levels of pacing, working height and cognitive demands may affect workers’ performance both physically and mentally. Demands will be higher when working at variable assembly but also performance will vary where variable and consistent assembly are used together. The research also discusses theories that might be most useful for describing these effects.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Cobb, S.
Golightly, D.
Segal, J.I.
Haslegrave, C.
Keywords: Assembly-line methods, human engineering, human-machine systems
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Engineering
Item ID: 28776
Depositing User: Shaikh, Shakil
Date Deposited: 01 Oct 2015 10:59
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2016 01:58

Actions (Archive Staff Only)

Edit View Edit View