Endoscopic multimodal imaging in Barrett's oesophagus

Mannath, Jayan (2013) Endoscopic multimodal imaging in Barrett's oesophagus. DM thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Abstract

The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OA) has increased exponentially in the western world over the past few decades. Barrett's oesophagus (BO) is a well known precursor of OA with a risk approximately 20 times more than that of background population. Regular endoscopic surveillance in patients with BO is recommended by most of the national gastroenterological societies. The advantage of Barrett's surveillance is to identify early subtle lesions which could then be managed early to avoid symptomatic and advanced cancers. The detection of such early lesions are challenging as they could be flat and inconspicuous on routine endoscopic examination. In the absence of any lesions, four quadrant biopsies every 1-2 cm of the whole length of Barrett's oesophagus is advised. This technique would map only 5-10% of the surface area of Barrett's segment and hence it is associated with significant sampling error. The improvement in electronics over the past decade has led to the production of endoscopes with better charged coupled devices and image enhancement techniques by altering the spectrum of light.

This thesis examines the role of multi modal imaging in Barrett's oesophagus with a focus on detecting dysplasia and early cancer (EC). Firstly, the role of high definition (HD) imaging in routine clinical setting was studied using data from patients who have undergone Barrett's· surveillance. The yield of dysplasia by HD endoscopy was compared to standard definition (SD) endoscopy in this study. The role of narrow band imaging (NBI) with magnification in characterising abnormal lesions detected during BO surveillance was evaluated by performing a meta- analysis of clinical studies. The role of autofluorescence imaging (AFI) in Barrett's oesophagus was examined in detail with a view to understand the biological basis of autofluorescence and to improve the specificity of this technique as it is associated with significant false positive results in clinical studies. A meta-analysis was performed to identify whether AFI has a clinical advantage over white light endoscopy in detecting Barrett's dysplasia and the inter-observer reliability of this technology was studied using AFI expert and AFI non-expert endoscopists. An objective method of measuring the autofluorescence intensity was proposed as a ratio of the red to the green colour tone (AF ratio) of the area of interest. When the AF ratio of the lesion was divided by the AF ratio of the background mucosa, an AF index is obtained. A pilot study was performed to identify a cut-off value of AF index to differentiate high grade dysplasia (HGD) and EC from non-dysplastic BO. Finally, the biological basis of AF intensity was examined using APCmin mouse colonic models. This study looked into the AF ratio of the colonic mucosal lesions and correlated it with the amount of collagen and elastin in the submucosal tissue. Collagen and elastin are known to be the strongest fluorophores of the gastrointestinal tract and the question addressed is whether the low AF intensity associated with dysplastic lesions is due to the thickening of mucosa or to a reduction of collagen and elastin.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (DM)
Supervisors: Ragunath, K.
Keywords: Barrett's oesophagus, Endoscopic examination, Dysplasia, High definition endoscopy, Autofluorescence imaging
Subjects: W Medicine and related subjects (NLM Classification) > WI Digestive system
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Item ID: 28688
Depositing User: Blore, Mrs Kathryn
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2015 09:53
Last Modified: 13 Sep 2016 15:02
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/28688

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