Laser Doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing

He, Diwei and Nguyen, Hoang C. and Hayes-Gill, Barrie R. and Zhu, Yiqun and Crowe, John A. and Gill, Cally and Clough, Geraldine F. and Morgan, Stephen P. (2013) Laser Doppler blood flow imaging using a CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing. Sensors, 13 (9). pp. 12634-12647. ISSN 1424-8220

[img] PDF - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader
Available under Licence Creative Commons Attribution.
Download (2MB)


The first fully integrated 2D CMOS imaging sensor with on-chip signal processing for applications in laser Doppler blood flow (LDBF) imaging has been designed and tested. To obtain a space efficient design over 64 × 64 pixels means that standard processing electronics used off-chip cannot be implemented. Therefore the analog signal processing at each pixel is a tailored design for LDBF signals with balanced optimization for signal-to-noise ratio and silicon area. This custom made sensor offers key advantages over conventional sensors, viz. the analog signal processing at the pixel level carries out signal normalization; the AC amplification in combination with an anti-aliasing filter allows analog-to-digital conversion with a low number of bits; low resource implementation of the digital processor enables on-chip processing and the data bottleneck that exists between the detector and processing electronics has been overcome. The sensor demonstrates good agreement with simulation at each design stage. The measured optical performance of the sensor is demonstrated using modulated light signals and in vivo blood flow experiments. Images showing blood flow changes with arterial occlusion and an inflammatory response to a histamine skin-prick demonstrate that the sensor array is capable of detecting blood flow signals from tissue.

Item Type: Article
Schools/Departments: University of Nottingham UK Campus > Faculty of Engineering > Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering
Identification Number:
Depositing User: de Sousa, Mrs Shona
Date Deposited: 04 Apr 2014 13:38
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2016 07:49

Actions (Archive Staff Only)

Edit View Edit View