Development and application of hyperpolarized krypton-83 as a new MRI contrast agent

Hughes-Riley, Theodore (2014) Development and application of hyperpolarized krypton-83 as a new MRI contrast agent. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Abstract

Hyperpolarized (hp) gases such 129Xe and 83Kr (spin I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 respectively) can allow for significantly enhanced signal in a number of magnetic resonance applications. As a result there has been a growing interest in recent years to advance hp noble gas technology to non-invasively image the airspace of lungs, with the goal of developing a helpful probe for lung pathologies. 83Kr longitudinal relaxation (T1) has been shown to be sensitive to various surface properties, and may prove to be an interesting for identifying certain diseases including those that change surface chemistry (such as cystic fibrosis) or the surface-to-volume ratio in the lung (like in emphysema).

This thesis contains several studies furthering 83Kr lung imaging, while also exploring methods for 129Xe imaging. A major focus has been on increasing spin polarization of the noble gases, as an increased polarization yields a greater MR signal strength. A novel low-pressure spin-exchange optical pumping technique has been utilized in this work allowing for 83Kr polarizations exceeding 17.5 %; as opposed to 4.4 % previously reported in literature.

Gas produced in this fashion must be pressurized to above ambient before it is possible for it to be delivered to a lung. Two methodologies for pressurizing the noble gas via compression are explored and optimized for hp gas delivery to excised lungs with 83Kr polarizations as high as 13.8 % achievable after compression. This ultimately allowed for the first ever coronal 83Kr lung images in an ex vivo lung model. Further work repeated with isotopically enriched 83Kr achieved a surface-sensitive T1 relaxation map in this system.

Finally gas handling techniques where created to allow for efficient and thorough mixing of the hp noble gases and O2 while minimizing relaxation effects. This is vital for any future in vivo studies.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Meersmann, T.
Morris, P.G.
Hall, I.P.
Keywords: Hyperpolarized gases, Krypton-83, Magnetic resonance imaging, Contrast media
Subjects: W Medicine and related subjects (NLM Classification) > WN Radiology. Diagnostic imaging
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Clinical Sciences
UK Campuses > Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences > School of Medicine
Item ID: 14460
Depositing User: EP, Services
Date Deposited: 24 Aug 2015 09:37
Last Modified: 15 Sep 2016 00:51
URI: http://eprints.nottingham.ac.uk/id/eprint/14460

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