Monitoring and prediction of air polution from traffic in the urban environment

Reynolds, Shirley Anne (1996) Monitoring and prediction of air polution from traffic in the urban environment. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Traffic-related air pollution is now a major concern. The Rio Earth Summit and the Government's commitment to Agenda 21 has led to Local Authorities taking responsibility to manage the growing number of vehicles and to reduce the impact of traffic on the environment. There is an urgent need to effectively monitor urban air quality at reasonable cost and to develop long and short term air pollution prediction models.

The aim of the research described was to investigate relationships between traffic characteristics and kerbside air pollution concentrations. Initially, the only pollution monitoring equipment available was basic and required constant supervision. The traffic data was made available from the demand-responsive traffic signal control systems in Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire. However, it was found that the surveys were too short to produce statistically significant results, and no useful conclusions could be drawn.

Subsequently, an automatic, remote kerbside monitoring system was developed specifically for this research. The data collected was analysed using multiple regression techniques in an attempt to obtain an empirical relationship which could be used to predict roadside pollution concentrations from traffic and meteorological data. However, the residual series were found to be autocorrelated, which meant that the statistical tests were invalid. It was then found to be possible to fit an accurate model to the data using time series analysis, but that it could not predict levels even in the short-term.

Finally, a semi-empirical model was developed by estimating the proportion of vehicles passing a point in each operating mode (cruising, accelerating, decelerating and idling) and using real data to derive the coefficients. Unfortunately, it was again not possible to define a reliable predictive relationship. However, suggestions have been made about how this research could be progressed to achieve its aim.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Bell, M.
Keywords: Air, pollution, automobiles, motors, exhaust
Subjects: T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Engineering > Department of Civil Engineering
Item ID: 11740
Depositing User: EP, Services
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2011 14:19
Last Modified: 17 Sep 2016 12:16

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