The physics of QballsTools Tsumagari, Mitsuo (2009) The physics of Qballs. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
AbstractIn this thesis we investigate the stationary properties and formation process of a class of nontopological solitons, namely Qballs. We explore both the quantummechanical and classical stability of Qballs that appear in polynomial, gravitymediated and gaugemediated potentials. By presenting our detailed analytic and numerical results, we show that absolutely stable nonthermal Qballs may exist in any kinds of the above potentials. The latter two types of potentials are motivated by AffleckDine baryogenesis, which is one of the best candidate theories to solve the present baryon asymmetry. By including quantum corrections in the scalar potentials, a naturally formed condensate in a postinflationary era can be classically unstable and fragment into Qballs that can be longlived or decay into the usual baryons/leptons as well as the lightest supersymmeric particles. This scenario naturally provides the baryon asymmetry and the similarity of the energy density between baryons and dark matter in the Universe. Introducing detailed lattice simulations, we argue that the formation, thermalisation and stability of these Qballs depend on the properties of models involved with supersymmetry breaking.
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