Constraints on the operation of a DI diesel engine in partially-premixed combustion mode

Keeler, Benjamin (2009) Constraints on the operation of a DI diesel engine in partially-premixed combustion mode. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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Partially-premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion is defined by increased levels of premixed charge whilst retaining control over combustion through injection timing. An experimental investigation has been carried out on a current generation DI diesel engine, equipped with High Pressure Common Rail (HPCR) fuel injection equipment and an external Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system. The aims of the investigation were to determine the constraints imposed on operating a PCCI combustion strategy with the aim of simultaneously reducing engine-out net soot and NOx emissions.

The work was carried out at fully-warm steady-state conditions at engine speeds of 1500 rpm and 1800 rpm, predominantly using a single injection strategy. With a single injection the Start of Injection (SOI), fuel rail pressure, and rate of EGR have been examined with a view to realising PCCI combustion. Timing ranges of -20º to +3ºATDC, rail pressures of 500-1200 bar, and EGR rates of 0-60% have been investigated. The responses looked at have been engine-out soot, NOx, HC, and CO emissions, fuel consumption, and combustion noise. It is shown that variation of the parameters has allowed PCCI combustion to be achieved in a restricted operating region, offering improvement in the NOx-soot trade-off. This region is limited on the available test engine by oxygen availability due to the specifications of the turbocharger and EGR systems. Engine speeds up to 2000 rpm (at 2.5 bar BMEP), and loads of 4.4 bar gross IMEP (at 1500 rpm) have been found to be the limits, beyond which soot and CO emissions rise excessively.

It is shown that enhancing the mixing time and intensity are both desirable in achieving PCCI combustion. The net soot reduction mechanism exploited with PCCI combustion strategies is reducing soot formation to outweigh the reduction in oxidation. Enhancing the mixing intensity by increasing injection pressure is highly effective at reducing soot output, but at the expense of brake specific fuel consumption. Increasing the mixing time can also be effective in reducing soot output, but careful parameter selection is required to avoid excessive soot output. Retarded or highly advanced injection timings are shown to reduce net soot output, but both have associated trade-offs and penalties. Retarding combustion is effective at lowering soot and NOx emissions with low associated noise, but a fuel economy penalty is paid. Advanced combustion phasing can result in large peak rates of increase of pressure, which have been shown to correlate well with combustion noise. Overall soot reductions of up to 97% were achieved, but with associated penalties. One of the most acceptable reductions of ~90% came at the cost of a 6% increase in fuel consumption, highlighting that improvements in emissions are achievable with PCCI strategies with acceptable trade-offs.

Item Type: Thesis (University of Nottingham only) (PhD)
Supervisors: Shayler, P.J.
Keywords: PCCI, partially-premixed combustion, fuel injection, EGR, operating constraints
Subjects: T Technology > TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery > TJ751 Internal combustion engines. Diesel engines
Faculties/Schools: UK Campuses > Faculty of Engineering > Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
Item ID: 10760
Depositing User: EP, Services
Date Deposited: 08 Dec 2009 13:15
Last Modified: 18 Dec 2017 18:15

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